A member of the University of Buffalo law faculty since 2001, Bridget and Thomas Black SUNY Distinguished Professor James A. Gardner is a highly regarded specialist in constitutional and election law. He has published six books and more than 60 articles and book chapters. He has taught at Western New England University, William and Mary, the University of Connecticut and Florida State University. Gardner received his BA from Yale University and his J.D. from the University of Chicago. From 1984 to 1988, he practiced law in the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice in Washington, D.C.